The F3 Flash Memory Controller
is specifically designed for applications such as high-speed CF cards, disk-on-module, or solid state disks. it supports automatic sensing of PCMCIA or True-IDE host interface
mode. Compliant to PCMCIA 2.1, PC Card Advance Technology Attachment (ATA), and CF 3.0/4.0, memory mapped or I/O operations, fast ATA host-to-buffer transfer rates, programmed input/output (PIO) mode 6, MDMA mode 4, and ultraDMA mode 5 in true-Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) mode. While offering parallel-ATA (PATA), serial-ATA (SATA) can also be realized using an additional PATA to SATA bridge chip.
, stored in flash memory, is application and host interface
specific. All tasks with respect to flash and data management and data transfers between flash and host are
implemented either in hardware
or in software
. Hyperstone flash controllers boot-up using firmware
that is stored within the flash memory of the product.
Other solutions might store firmware
in the ROM of the controller. Therefore, based on identical product hardware
, manufacturers are able to provide different products or feature sets. Also,firmware
could be updated in the field or immediately before delivery. The firmware
is copied into the flash in a so called pre-formatting process after the storage product has been assembled.
Several algorithms and concepts are used to address the questions initially posed re-writing to areas, maximizing flash life time, and ensuring data transfer integrity.