White Paper

Fundamentals of Reliable Flash Storage

White Papers, Application Notes, Presentations & Articles

We have covered a range of embedded topics over the years and have now started to publish a series titled 'The Fundamentals of Reliable Flash Storage'. These papers aim to explain the basics of controller and flash technology as well as some of their inherent intricacies. While the majority of our white papers are avaliable to all registered users, some cover more specific topics. These papers (see list below) are available only under Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA). To access these papers, please contact us directly after you register to start the process.

Your input matters - If you have a NAND Flash-based question or a topic you think should be explained in further detail, please don’t hesitate to contact us.


Getting the Most Out of Performance Specs - Top 10 Points for Embedded Designers
Speaker: Damien Col, Technical Marketing Manager
Download Flash Memory Summit 2018 Presentation

Flash & the Internet of Things - Applying flash in the Industrial IoT
Speaker: Eric Jones, Business Development at Hyperstone                                              Download Flash Memory Summit 2017 Presentation

Lifetime Estimation and Health Monitoring - Support for System Qualification Testing
Speaker: Axel Mehnert, VP Marketing at Hyperstone                                                       Download Flash Memory Summit 2016 Presentation

Enabling MLC in Industrial and Embedded Storage - Tools and Features to making the right choice
Speaker: Axel Mehnert, VP Marketing at Hyperstone                               Download Flash Memory Summit 2015 Presentation

Technical Articles

Boards & Solutions 
Download API for flash controller opens realm of customer applications article

Boards & Solutions
Download USB 3.1 SuperSpeed Flash Drives for Industrial Applications article

Design & Elektronik
only available in german
Download USB 3.1 im Industrie-Einsatz article

Boards & Solutions  
Download New Flash Management Architecture article

Available White Papers

Fundamentals of Reliable Flash Storage: Non-Volatile Memory

This White Paper provides an overview of NAND Flash Technology, which is the most widely used storage technology in today's non-volatile memory based storage system. Different topics, such as the transistors in general, structure, different functionalities and today's challenges are explained in detail.

Fundamentals of Reliable Flash Storage: Flash Controller Technology

This paper provides an overview of functions and features provided by Flash Memory Controllers. Controllers are at the heart of any storage systems, and are key to its behavior and reliability. In the following chapters the different components of the firmware (e.g. Mapping, Wear Leveling, Read Disturb Management, Data Refresh, Perormance, Health Monitoring, etc.) and the hardware (e.g. CPU, Flash Memory Interface or the Interface to Host) are explained.

Fundamentals of Reliable Flash Storage: Hyperstone Controller Technology

This White Paper explains proprietary features of Hyperstone Flash Memory Controllers and implementation. It is intended as an introduction, and may only touch some Features taht Impact the reliability and Quality of Controller and FW. The structure of this paper is divided into two aspects. First, the controller hardware architecture is presented, then the different aspects of the firmware are explained (e.g. pre-formatting, mapping, wear leveling, and many others).

Fundamentals of Reliable Flash Storage: Flash Memory Form Factors

This White Paper provides an overview of the form factors of the flash memory system. A NAND flash memory based memory system most often consists of a NAND flash and a memory controller. However, there are other possibilities that are considered equivalent in this paper. For each new generation of memory, the management of NAND flash is becoming increasingly complex. The price per megabit of NAND flash memory is continuously decreasing, which is usually at the expense of reliability and memory retention. In contrast, the memory controller, which is responsible for managing the memory and important features of the system, is designed to ensure system reliability.

Fundamentals of Reliable Flash Storage: Application Programming Interface

All Hyperstone flash memory controllers include a special firmware for managing flash memory. Apart from being an active bridge between a host and a flash memory interface, it is the key element for managing flash to increase its performance, reliability, robustness and endurance. Hyperstone's Application Programming Interface (API) gives customers the ability to extend Hyperstone's standard firmware and implement their own value-added features while benefiting from advanced hyMap Flash management and fully tested firmware.

Deep Dive into Reliable Flash Storage: Power Fail Robustness

This paper takes a dive into the technicalities involved in the Flash Controller feature known as Power Fail Robustness. The goal of power failure management is to avoid corrupted data and failing devices. Hyperstone flash controllers contain mechanisms and use multiple algorithms to protect applications in situations of unexpected power failures, excessive power supply deviations, or hot displugging. Since a sudden power failure (SPF) can hit a storage system while writing, reading, deleting, mapping updates and background firmware operations, it is invaluable to understand this process. This white paper aims to convey and explore basic algorithms and functions embedded in the basic firmware architecture of Hyperstone´s that ensure data integrity and the complex Power Fail Management (PFM) function.


This white paper deals with Hyperstone's hyMap technology. It aims to ensure maximum reliability and longevity. Mapping describes the process of "translating" the host-side "logical" into the flash-side "physical" access patterns within a storage system. Basically, there are different mapping procedures for this process, which differ in terms of performance, costs and other characteristics.

Adressing Single Event Upsets (SEU)

Single event upsets (SEUs) are an increasingly important challenge in demanding environments as semiconductor technology nodes shrink, the relative memory area in SoCs increases, and supply voltages decrease. Avionics, automotive, communications, medical, and industrial applications are just a few examples where system reliability is a key factor and SEU needs to be considered. This paper presents the different topics and their short forms and explains how Hyperstone is uniquely positioned to meet this challenge now and in the future.

Embedded Flash Disk-on-Board

This White paper contains the advantages of integrating a NAND flash-based memory system directly on a system board. Basically there are two possibilities. The system can be mounted either directly on the motherboard (Disk-On-Board, DOB) or as a separate module according to customer specification (Disk-On-Module, DOM). Hyperstone flash memory controllers are increasingly used in storage media solutions with a managed flash solution. This consists of a flash memory controller and the NAND flash itself. This flash controller provides the host/main processor with the standardized interface for various interface standards and manages the NAND flash.

BCH versus LDPC

Error correction coding (ECC) is an important task of flash memory controllers. The gate count of the ECC hardware takes up an essential part of the overall logic. Scaling ECC strength to meet the growing error correction requirements of flash memories has become increasingly difficult when taking into account cost and space constraints. This white paper examines and compares various error correction encoding techniques. In particular, serial concatenations of an outer BCH code and various inner low-density parity check (LDPC) codes are compared with modern (stand-alone) BCH codes.

pSLC vs Fast Page

This white paper highlichts the two concepts of pSLC-Mode and Fast-Page-Mode, which are often used simultaneously. The essential differences are presented clearly and help to ensure a safe use of the technical terms in the future.

Register with us to gain exclusive access to more product documents!

If you sign an NDA with us, we can give you access to exclusive documents and firmware downloads. Send us an email after you register and we will start the process.


The following papers are available under NDA, please contact Hyperstone to get access

AES Application Note
Field Firmware Update
Read Firmware Features & NAND Flash Reliability


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